Groundwater-controlled valley networks (large, sparsely dissecting valley networks) on Mars

Citation Harrison, K. P., and R. E. Grimm (2005), Groundwater-controlled valley networks and the decline of surface runoff on early Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 110, E12S16, doi:10.1029/2005JE002455

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Significance The formation of these features is generally attributed to some combination of surface runoff and groundwater sapping. These valleys may indicate transition from valley network to outflow channel formation, characterized by a weakening of surface runoff, leaving groundwater processes as the dominant, final source of valley network erosion.